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In popular myth, the word, documentary was coined by Scottish documentarian John Grierson in his review of Robert Flaherty’s film Moana (1926), published in the New York Sun on 8 February 1926, written by “The Moviegoer” (a pen name for Grierson).

Grierson’s principles of documentary were that cinema’s potential for observing life could be exploited in a new art form; that the “original” actor and “original” scene are better guides than their fiction counterparts to interpreting the modern world; and that materials “thus taken from the raw” can be more real than the acted article. In this regard, Grierson’s views align with Vertov’s contempt for dramatic fiction as “bourgeois excess”, though with considerably more subtlety. Grierson’s definition of documentary as “creative treatment of actuality” has gained some acceptance, though it presents philosophical questions about documentaries containing stagings and reenactments